Hipa Konglam Hi Rakrelcio Uh Khah Zei Tin Dah A Khua Ruah Dan Le A Si Ning

David Buan Hre timi hi zeibantuk Historian in PhD la mi maw, zeibantuk in History Professor na si hi kan theih bak lo nain, history leiah expert or professional cu si dawh na si, na biachim nai zumh ning hin. Ca zong rel bal lomi, zei tuanbia hmanh thei lomi, aukhuang sawhsawh tiin ning hngal luakchuak in na vun ka ti caah ka vun in leh colh. Keihi cawnnak ngei le thiamnak ngei ka si tak lo, a thiamsang zong ka si fawn lo. Asinain ka theihfian lomi le ka hngalh set lomi cu ka chim, tial ballo ka ti cang kha mu.

Ka thiam lo, ka hngalh lo nain na huam chung in kan i tawng lai, na comment mi catialmi kha zeitluk in theih huaha lo le milih chim na si kha research ka vun tuah cikcek le a tanglei ning hin cauk tampi zoh chih in Ukraine ramchung i Judah (Jews) pawl tuanbia cu ka vun in chimh lai rak rel te law vun ka let te.

Ukraine Ramchung I Judah Pawl Tuarnak Le Tuanbia; Tutan i Putin nih Ukraine mipi thah viar phun in a timh hna in cun, 1918 le 1921 lio i Russia le Bolshevik nih Ukraine an rak luhhnawh mi kong hi a vun kan theihter than. WW1 le Russian Revolution a dihka hrawngah a tu bantuk in an luhhanwh hi a si. Ukrainian, Russians, Poles, Germans, Judah ka si ai ti mi pawl zong an luat hlei lo. Cu lio i Ukraine ah a ummi Judah mi 3 million hna an temtuarnak hi ai phun dang rih.

1919 in 1921 kar ah Judah dohnak (anti-Jewish) langhternak le kahdohnak voi 1,000 leng a chuak i, Ukraine ram pumpi i hmun 500 renglo ah a tlungmi a si. Ukraine lothlo, Polish khuapimi hna le Russia ralkap pawl cu Ukraine khuasa Judah mi hna an thilri firnak license an i ngeih i, an thilri duhtawk in an fir hna. Judah pa pawl nih an i zuahmi an khabehmul cu an dawhpiak hna, Judah nunau an tlaihhrem hna, an bible Torah zong an thlehpiak hna. Judah pawl cu mi tamnak barzar ah an pumh hna i, an hrem hna. Cu hnu cun khualeng ah an chuah hna hnu ah an kah hna. Voikhat cu Judah biakinn an luhnawh i an khangh beh.

Judah mi dohnak ruangah a thimi Judah mi hi a thong an sang an phan. 40,000 an thi, cun nehhnu ah hma ruangah le tirawl eidin awk ngeih lo ruangah 70,000 thiam an thi than. Ukraine i a thimi Judah mi hi an dihlakah 300,000 hrawng an si theu lai, tiah an chim. 1918 in 1921 karlah i a thimi Judah mi hi 100,000 lengkai an si. Judah mi 600,000 renglo hi hranhram in ramdang lei ah an zaamter hna. Ukraine i Judah mi hna an inn le an lo, an business vialte chungin cheuthum ah chuekhat tluk hrawng cu hrawhpiak an si.

Russia siangpahrang nih Ukraine hi a ningpi ti awk in a uk i, Judah mi hna an thil le an ri hrawh dingin nawl a chuah. Amah zong cu 1917 Febuary ah an a rian an thilh i, a kumvui ah an thah beh. Ukrainian People’s Republic cu 1918 November ah an dirh i, ram chungah daihnak um dingin lam sial hram a thok. Judah mi hna zong rammi sinak kutka a onpiak hna i, an Judah holh te hmang kho dingin le amah le an miphun karlak ah i thithruai khawhnak lam a onpiak hna. Minister of Jewish affiars, Jewish sianginn, sizing, tarzohnak inn, ngaktah inn, ngandamnak lei sianginn zong um kho dingin lam a onpiak hna. Cu ti thil a tuahpiakmi cu Ukraine ah a ummi Judah mi le vawleicung ka dangdang ah a ummi Judah mi nih lunglawngtein an cohlan.

Asinain, cu ti hram an tok hmanh a rauh hlan ah, Global Bolshevik pennak dirh a duhtu United Russia nih Ukraine hruaitu pawl cu an chaak an rengh than hna i, ram chung bawi le mihlun pawl tanh le dirkmah dingin rian an fial hna. Cu tikah, Ukraine mipi hna nih an doh dingmi ral pawl hi mizei an si hliah khawh an si ti lo. Amah lak lila zongah an um cang. Miphun a tanhmi ral an si caah, a ral ven awk an har ngaingai. Cu tikah khat le khat ai daw, ai tlaihchan deuh mi paoh cu hmunkhat ah i fonh dingin thawng an thanh. A tu bantukin khat le khat i remlonak, kan ram ralchanh in a cawlcangmi, kan ral hna lei tangin bia a chimmi pawl hi nanmah Judah mi hi nan si, tiin thawngthanhnak kipah an thang an chiat cang hna.

Cu ti biaka in khat le khat an sual an i kawlmi cu a takin tuahsernak chungah an luhpi taktak i, zatlang nun ai hrawm kho ti lo mi ralkap pensen la cangmi nih ral cu an thawhter lawlaw. Misual phu cu an ser hna i, zurit bu in heh tiah an lam, sa an ei hna. Cu tikah dinnak a tanhmi rammi nih an sin tel an duh ti lo. Cu vialte buaibainak cu ralkap nih an tuahmi a si. Asinain, Ukraine i Judah pawl khua an sakmi hi kan politics thar he ai ralchanhmi a si, tiin min an bunh.

Cu tikah Judah mi lawnglawng hrem dingin a mikip lungthin ah a caam cang. Bolsheviks pawl nih cun Judah mi cu minunghawi tluk lo ah an chiah hna. Ukraine mipi nih le Russia mihman (agents) nan si, tiin an ti hna. Russia nih le German tanhtu nan si, ti a si ve. Poles pawl nih an ser tharmi Polish Republic zong an zumh lo phah viar. Ram dai seh, ti an duh caah Judah mi pawl cu party kip ah an i tel ve. Asinain ram thatnak ding ca i an cawlsek lenmi zong cu zei party hmanh nih an zumhpaik duh ti hna lo.

Ukraine ram hmun lo dingin a buaitertu bik cu Bolsheviks an rak si. Bolshevik movement ah a tangbikmi le a min thangbikmi hruaitu pawl cu Judah sinak a hlawmi anmah Judah lila an rak si. Commissar of Foreign Affiars le Red Army hruaitu Leon Trotsky zong ai tel. Hi pa hi anmah Judah miphun hrawktu dingah hmanrua tha a si lai, tiin Bolshevik nih hriamnaam bangin an hmanmi pa a si.

Nanmah Judah pawl hi Bolshevik ca i riantuanmi nan si, tiin Ukrainian People’s Republic an ti hna. 1919 Jan. 5 Sunday ni ah Bolshevik cawlcanghnak cu Ukraine ralkap nih Kyiv ah an hrawh. Cu tikah, teinak a hmutu Ukraien ralkap pawl nih cun Judah mi an dawr cu ngaan lo in an hrawhpiak dih hna. Nihin ni tiang zongah buainak pakhat a um paoh le a mikip nih Judah mi hi sualphaw an si zungzal.

Hungry ralkap nih an mawtaw khat in thil an fir. Kiangkap khuate pawl thil le ri an firpiak hna. Cu tikah lehrulhnak an tuah ve hna i, 1919 Jan. 8-13 kar i a thimi hi 90 an phan deng, ti a si. 1919 Feb. 15 ah Ukraine ralkap nih nazi 4 chungah Judahmi 1,000 an thah hna. Cucu Judah mi an tonmi thahnawnnak vialte lakah a faakbikmi ah relh a si, aruang cu Russia nih Ukraine thluak faktuk in a rak tawl cang hna caah an rak zum ve ti hna lo. Bolshevism phung doh a si tikah Judahmi an ningpi in thah hi ai tel. Ukraine nih ai tinhmi cu a ram chungum Judahmi vialte an ningpi in thawh viar hi a si.

June thla in cun lothlo hna kut ah Ukraien ralkap an sung. Hi lothlo pawl zong hi Judahmi a remlo i, Bosheviks lei tangin a ruattu hna an si. 1919 July ah khan Kyiv in thlenglei ah Bolshevicks pawl nih biakinn an khar hna i, an tlangbawi zong sal ah an tlaih beh, ti a si. Russian White Army nih 1919 in khan cu ti raltuk lawng ai molhpimi ralbawi pawl cu an tei hna. Cu ti buainak a chuah le cangka Judahmi hna nih mah le mah i rumvennak ralkap phu an si ser ve. Asinain, an hriamnaam nih hriamnaam tha ai ngeihmi an ral pawl a doh khawh hna lo caah, anmah a tanhtu hna ralkap lei paoh ah tangti dingin timhlamhnak an ngei.

Red Army hi Judahmi huatnak theng an kalpi lo caah an sinah an i fawn lawlaw. Judahmi hi kan ral an si hrimhrim lo, tiin Bolshevil Committee for the Struggle Against Antisemitism nih an ralkap pawl an cawnpiak hna. Cu tikah, Judahmi huatnak a tuahtu an ralkap paoh cu the Red Army nih nun a chimh hna. Judahmi nih cun the Red Army cu an Messiah hngah bangin an hngah hna. Red Army nih cun Judahmi cu market ah a pumh hna. Thah dingah si lo in, hriamnaam pek i, ralkapbu ah ser dingah a si. Judahmi an i tel deuhdeuh in cun Bolshevik le Judahmi an i pehtlaihnak a hung thawng deuhdeuh ve.

1920 i Bolsheviks nih Ukraine an vun uk in cun, Judahmi a phuphu in a thattu pawl daan a vun tat thluahmah hna. Ram chung lothlo pawl cu a thongthong in a pumh hna i a thah duahmah hna. Ram chung biazeihzung pawl ah Judahmi an tamtuk ve caah, cu ti thahnawnnak cu Judahmi nih an chuahpimi biasu a si, tiin an sual an kawl than hna. Kum 10 hnu ah Soviet cozah thar nih Ukraine ah nawlngeihnak a laak i, biakinn pawl a khar dih, Ukraine ram cu amah ram ah ai ser i, minung 3.5 million rawl lo in a thattu mangthaam cu 1932-1933 ah a tlunter. Cu ti paam a tongmi tam u nih cun Judahmi sual an phawt hoi hna.

Cu ti Judahmi a bubu in thah an si nak kong cu Archives of Historical and Ethnographic Yiddish Memories project kan dirh thok in a si. Ka hawipa hi Dov-Ber Kerler a si i, project director a si. Holocaust le communism kut in an luatnak kong Ukraine cul in kai chok i ka hal hna. 1918-1921 karlak hrawng an tonmi harnaknih an sining tamtuk a thlen hna nak kong an ka chimh. 2007 ah khan Naum Gaiviker ka ton. Kum 6 a si lio ah hringtu a pa hi Proskuriv lei ah thah dingin an kalpi. Cu hnu cun kum 91 a si mi Nisen Yurkovetsky ka ton. 1919 lio i thi lakin a nu an kah lio ah amah zong cu kuan hma a pu. A hma zong a ka zohter. Bawhkeh Yurkovetsky cu Polish tlangbawi nih a khamh manh.

A bubu in thahnawnnak a tongmi chungkhar dah ti lo nih zeiruangah dah hi thahnawnnak kong hi midang nih an ceih hnga lo, timi kong ka ruat. A tam u nih an tialmi hi cu 1903 lio mi Judahmi minung 49 an thah hna kong lawngte hi a si. Cun 1881 lio i Judahmi 20 lenglo hmunkhat ah thah an si hnu khan a bubu in thah an tonnak tuanbia ai thok, tiah theih a si. Asinain, 1918-1921 kar i Judahmi minung 100,000 thah an sinak kong belte cu philh a si. Holocaust tuanbia nih a chilhtuk caah a si.

Judahmi 127,000 thah an tong, 6,000,000 thinphang in an um, tiah Sep. 8, 1919 ah The New York Times nih thawng a thanh. Ukraine le Poland ah a ummi Judahmi 6 million hna cu an ningpi in thah dih dingin timhlamhnak a um, ti cu biafiang a si. Cucaah hi kong hi vawlei pumpi theih a si i, nihin kan tonmi thil a si, tiin America ah Federation of Ukrainian Jews i an president Joseph Seff nih a chim.

Judahmi thah hi European ah a tlung than lai maw, timi catlang hmangin the Times nih thawng a thanh hlan thla hnihthum tein khan Literarcy Digest nih capar a tial bal cang. Mi a bubu in thawhhnawnnak tuah an i timhnak a ruangbik cu Ukraine ah Judahmi hrimhrim um ti hna hlah seh, ti an duh caah a si, tiin Russia Red Cross nih an chim.

American Jewish ramkhel Emma Goldman hi 1920-1921 lio ah Ukraine ah khua a sa mi a si i, Judahmi a bubu in thahnawnnak kong khua 72 ah hlathlainak a tuahtu Literary thawnglatu pa pakhat cu Odessa ah a ton. “Judahmi sualphawt dingin thawngpangdeu an thlah ruangah Judahmi an zapi in thah dih dingin mipi an lung a laak hi a si lai, tiah ka zumh” tiin Goldman nih a tial. 1922 lio i Ukraine i Judahmi a bubu in thahnawnnak kong cu “Miphun Thahnawnnak” timi tlangtar hmangin The Nation ah a tial bal. Cu ti a tialnak a chan cu, miphun pakhat an ningpiin thah dihnak (genocide) tuah an duh caah a si, tiin chim a duh caah a si.

Tutan civil war ruang i a chuakmi buaibainak nih hin Judahmi an dihlak in thahnak a chuahpi te khawh mi a si, tiin 1923 lio ah khan Russian Jewish historian Daniil Pasmanik nih ralrinpeknak bia a chim bal. Hi kong hi Judahmi nih an kaa in an chim lawng si lo in, an tuahsernak zongin an langhter taktak. A bu in thah lai phan ruangah minung million in cu hmun cu an chuahtak.

Lamhlapi ah a ummi Judahmi pawl tiang khat le khat i bawm kho dingin phu an i ser colh hna. The Great Powers timi an thok, dirhka te a si mi Poland le Romania ah miphun tlawm pawl an nuhrincovo dirkamhpiak dingin Judahmi hna nih an aupi. Ram thar an i halh i, Palestine ah Judah ram dirh dingin rian an thok. A bubu in thah an tonmi cu hmanthlak in le vawrhla in an phuah hna. Cun, Soviet Union ah hmunhma an khuar ve i, cozah rian, upadi rian an tlai i, cu bantuk a bubu in thahnak cu um ti lo dingin le thahnawnnak a chuahpitu paoh cu an biaceih dingin an cawlcang.

Cu ti i Europe ram i Judah pawl cawlcanghnak cu “a dikmi le a himmi daihnak a si tiin US President Woodrow Wilson nih a ti. Asinain mi tampi nih cun sual an phawt thiamthiam hna. Judah refugees a thong a sang in Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Budapest le Warsaw an hung phan hna. Hi a rak pemmi Judah pawl hi Bosheviks he ai naihniammi an si ko lai, tiin ceihchum a si. Cu nih cun Nazi tiangin an taw a sawh hna. German nih a ramri a rengh colh. Judah refugees an tamnak bik Romania, Hungary, Poland, Germnay, US, Argentina, British Palestine zong nih mipeem laknak kong an policy an remh cio hna. Cu ti a bubu in a thahnawnnak an cung a tlun hnu cu Judahmi hi vawlcungah mibuaibik ah chiah an hung si. US President Henry Ford zong nih cun The International Jew tiin 1920 ah ti ve bal.

Judahmi huatnak hi Nazi Germany nih a bubu in a thah hna hlan kum 20 tein khan Germany ah ai thok cang ti a si. Germany nih an ukmi Poland ram i a bubu in thahnak an kalpimi hi hlan chan tein tuah tawnmi rak si sehlaw a dawh in a chim, Ukraine in si loin.

Germany nih an ukmi Soviet Union hmunhma i Judahmi a bubu in thah an si nak a ruangbik cu Bolshevism an duh lo caah le an lei ah tangmi Judahmi zong an huat chih hna caah a si, tiah tuanbia tialtu tam u nih an chim zungzal. Cun, 1941 lio i Ukraine le Poland ah an tuahmi mibu thahnawnnak a kalpitu hna hi mipi sawhsawn an si, tiah historian pawl chim ning in theih a si. Cucaah, mi a bubu in thahnak a kalpitu hna hi Nazi hruaitu Hitler hei ti bantuk lawng an rak si hrimhrim lo, ti a lang. Khuami hna nih anmah biachahnak tein an tuahmi tampi a um. Holocaust ah a thimi lakin cheuthum ah cheukhat hi cu anmah le an innlo tang te ah a thah a tongmi an si hna. A ruang cu innpa nih an thahmi hna an si deuh ngawt, tinak a si. 1918-1921 lio i Judahmi a bubu in an thah hna ah hin ralkap le lothlo pa pawl an i tel.

WW2 lio i Ukraine um Judah pawl an cung a tlungmi hi WW1 lio i an chung a tlungmi i a theipar a si. Bolshevik remlonak cu Germany nih baitaktein an vun kalpi than i, kum 10 chung sualnak a ngeilomi Judahmi cu heh tiah an thah hna. 1918-1921 lio i Ukraine ah a tlungmi thil tihnung ruangah Germany nih Soviet Union a tuk hi a si. Cu hma cu nihin tiang a dam rih lo,” tiin Jacob Lestschinsky nih a tial. Ukraine ram i Judahmi khua an sak ko rihmi nih hin cu lio i an tonmi thahnawnnak vialte tehte a khaantu an si.

US President Bill Clinton zong nih 1994 lio i Rwanda genocide a kham manh lo nak kong Kigali a tlawn lio ah a chim. “A chuakmi thisen dor khat cio nih thisen dor dang a chuahter tawn. Minung kan man an thumh, thatlonak zeihrel a si ti lo, tuksapur thil hna cu mithmuh kuttongh ah an cang, tiin a chim.

Nihin i Ukraine ah Judahmi ka si ko ai timi hi President Zelensky telh in 40,000 an si. Tutan buaibainak belte ah cun Judahmi huatnak kong a lang lo ah a cang. Asinain Putin nih cun Ukraine hi huatnak le thinhunnak in a khatmi ram a si i, Ukraine uknak hrawh dingah cun ka hriamnaam ngeihmi vialte ka hman hna lai i, vawleicung hmaika ah Ukraine i a democracy hi a mual ka phoh cikcek lai, tiin a chim. A zei a va si hmanh ah, Russia nih Ukraine a luhhnawh ruangah Ukraine khuasa vialte cungah fahnak a tlung. 1918-1921 lio i Russia ai teltum ruang i thil tihnung a tlun bang khan a si kho mi a si. Credit: Chelsea Bawi